1. As the emulsion is used, water evaporates - dissolved impurities and oil are left. The emulsion concentration ratio goes up and water hardness in the emulsion increases. Water hardness higher than 25 on causes the emulsion durability to drop; stains may occur on the elements.
  2. The emulsion brings together all kinds of pollution - machine oils, dust, chips and waste.
  3. Causes mentioned in clause 1 and clause 2 are the reasons why it is not possible to keep using any emulsion without problems for a dozen months or so (the final term depends on the number of refills and the user’s requirements).
  4. Emulsions are not harmful to people when used as prescribed.
  5. Symptoms of infection depend on the type of bacteria: most frequently, they include unpleasant smell, dense blanket on the surface of emulsion, skin redness, slow-healing wounds and skin scratches. The process is more rapid in case of small refills.
  6. In spring and summer, when the ambient temperatures are higher and the amount of air-borne organic microparticles is higher, the system is more likely to get infected.
  7. In winter, the concentrate may get stratified and resistant to emulsification when frozen - do not let it freeze. One can try to heat up the stratified concentrate to about 25 oC and stir it well but sometimes it is simpler and more reliable to replace it.
  8. Recipients frequently use refractometers which demand an adjustment factor to be used - they tend to forget about it and underrate the result.
  9. The durability can be extended by means of biocides: KATHON 886 MW - interventionally, GROTAN OX – preventively, once a month (it increases the pH value). Before the emulsion is replaced, it is recommended to use a washing disinfectant – Cleaner KD-1 for washing the system.
  10. When the emulsion concentration ration drops below 2.5%, the emulsion may lose its anti-corrosion properties.
  11. Micro-organisms grow at a more intense rate if pH drops below 8.0. It is recommended to keep it within the range of 8.5 - 9. The reaction above 9 is unfavourable when machining aluminium, above 9.5 it can irritate skin.
  12. To delay the process referred to in clause 1 and 10, it is necessary to avoid refilling the coolant by adding water. The concentrate contains substances which reduce water hardness and increase the pH value. It is recommended to do refilling with emulsion with a concentration ratio of 10 to 50% lower than the working one but not with water.
  13. The concentrate must always be added to water - otherwise, a reverse form of emulsion - mayonnaise - can form!